HEALTHCARE SUBLANGUAGE CLASSES

SUBCLASS DEFINITIONS GROUPED BY SEMANTIC AREA

PATIENT AREA
H-PT*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-PTVERB H-INDIC.
Ex. Patient complained of diarrhea.

This class contains the word 'PATIENT' and several other words referring to 'PATIENT'. Ex. 'CANDIDATE', 'HE', 'SHE'. (The pronouns 'HE', 'SHE' are also classed as H-FAMILY.)


H-PTAREA*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-INDIC is located at/on _____ of H-PTPART.
Ex. Lesion is located at the base of the lung.

_____ of H-PTPART is H-INDIC.
Ex. Side of face is swollen.

H-PTAREA words are generally associated with H-PTPART words. They are distinguished from H-PTPART words because they do not identify a unique part of the body but rather specify an area of an actual PTPART. Examples of H-PTAREA words are 'ANGLE', 'BORDER', 'REGION', 'SURFACE', 'SIDE', 'BASE'.


H-PTDESCR*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT V _____.
Ex. Patient is cooperative.

H-PT Verb _____ _____ H-PT
Ex. Patient is a thin, attractive woman.
Patient is a well-developed male
Patient is a coal_worker

H-PTDESCR words are primarily a class of adjectives which describe an H-PT noun. They do not designate signs or symptoms of illness or disease and commonly occur in the history section of the medical document.


H-PTFUNC*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-INDIC.
Ex. Appetite poor.
Inspirations shallow

H-PT Verb H-AMT _____ of H-PTPART.
Ex. Patient has full range_of_motion of left shoulder.

_____ is H-NORMAL.
Ex. Temperature is normal.

_____ is H-CHANGE-MORE.
Ex. Pulse is elevated.

H-PT _____
Ex. Patient walks 1 hour daily

This sublanguage class indicates physiological functions and processes of the body, and includes words for vital functions (BLOOD PRESSURE, PULSE). Also includes verbs for normal physical behavior (WALKING, BREATHING, AMBULATES).


H-PTLOC*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-INDIC _____ from H-PTPART.
Ex. Fracture radiates from left shoulder.
Ex. Pain localized in left knee.

This class contains words (mainly verbs) used to relate a bodypart to a sign/symptom or to another bodypart, or describes bodypart geometry (BIFURCATES, CENTERED, EXTENDS).


H-PTMEAS*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ is QNUMBER NUNIT
Ex. Weight is 127 lbs.

H-NORMAL H-PTPART _____ .
Ex. Normal cardiac size.

This is a small class of words used to record physical measurements (as opposed to physiological functions, like PULSE), and different from words for laboratory tests (which also have numerical results). These words are generally found in the Physical Examination section of the document.


H-PTPALP*TYPICAL FRAMES
No _____.
Ex. No liver.

This is a special subset of the H-PTPART subclass which may occur with negation on a zeroed verb 'PALPATED': 'No liver [palpated]'. Only this special subset of H-PTPART can be negated, because the negation is considered to belong to the zeroed verb 'PALPATE'.


H-PTPART*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ is H-INDIC.
Ex. Fontanel is bulging.

H-INDIC P _____.
Ex. Pain in abdomen.

H-PT V _____ H-INDIC.
Ex. Patient has metacarpal stiffness.

H-PT V H-INDIC _____.
Ex. Patient has swollen elbow.

H-PTPART includes nouns and adjectives which name a particular part of the body (ex. 'ARM', 'KIDNEY', 'LUNG'). It also includes non-specific PTPARTs (ex. 'ARTERY', 'CARTILAGE', 'JOINT'). In addition, some names of systems such as 'SYSTEMIC', 'NEUROLOGIC' also have an H-PTPART sublanguage classication.

Body excretion and body fluid words also have an H-PTPART classication. These include:
FLUIDSEXCRETIONS
Cerebrospinal fluidUrine
Blood  Stool
Mucous


H-PTSPEC*TYPICAL FRAMES
______ H-NEG H-TXRES.
Ex. Specimens negative for dysplasia

H-PTAREA H-PTPART _____
Ex. Right knee shavings

H-PTSPEC is a subclass related to H-PTPART and includes nouns and adjectives which have the property that they are special preparations of anatomical elements for laboratory examination. E.g. 'specimens', 'shavings'.


H-PTVERB*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT _____ H-INDIC.
Ex. Patient complained of fever.

H-PT _____ H-DIAG.
Ex. Patient suffered a myocardial infarction.

H-PTVERB words take a patient subject and generally a symptom or disease as the object.


TEST/EXAM AREA
H-OBSERVE*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-INST/H-PT _____ H-INDIC.
Ex. She has noted easy bruisability.

H-INDIC BE ______ [H-TXCLIN/H-TXPROC]
Ex. No ataxia was detected on finger-to-nose testing.

These words are verbs of observation, either by the caregiver or patient, or by using a procedure. Examples are 'DEPICT', 'DESCRIBE', 'DETECT', 'DISCERN', 'DISCOVER', 'RECOGNIZE', 'RECORD', 'REGISTER'.

Note that the noun form of these verbs is not always in the same class as the verb. E.g. RECORD as a noun is H-RECORD (Old records were not available).


H-TXCLIN*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ of H-PTPART H-SHOW H-INDIC.
Ex. Palpation of abdomen revealed tenderness.

_____ of H-PTPART BE H-NORMAL.
Ex. Examination of foot is normal.

_____ H-TXRES.
Ex. Kernig's sign positive.

H-TXCLIN words name tests done by the physician during the physical examination. The results of these tests may be normal (H-NORMAL), quantitative, or a qualitative descriptor which may be either H-TXRES or a neutral descriptor H-DESCR.


H-TXPROC*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-SHOW [H-NEG] H-INDIC
Ex. CXR shows no acute infiltrates.

H-SHOW H-DIAG
Ex. MRI shows a grade 1 spinal listhesis.

_____ H-PTPART.
Ex. Xray of hands and feet.

This subclass contains medical test words designating noninvasive procedures performed on the patient and not on a patient specimen. The patient must be present to undergo the test with H-TXPROC words. Further examples of H-TXPROC words are 'ANGIOGRAPHY', 'SIGMOIDOSCOPY', 'GI SERIES'.


H-TXSPEC*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-TXVAR H-SHOW/BE H-TXRES/Quantity.
Ex. Urinalysis Ph was 5.0.

_____ H-SHOW H-TXVAR H-NORMAL
Ex.'Blood chemistries' showed electrolytes normal.

These words name general types of tests, usually a battery of more specific tests, that appear in association with a more specific test (H-TXVAR).


H-TXVAR*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ BE/H-SHOW Quantity/H-TXRES/H-INDIC.
Ex. Acetone is normal.
WBC 53.

The H-TXVAR words name the "variable" of laboratory tests. The tests are performed on patient specimens, not on the patient's persona. The H-TXVAR words are distinct from H-ORG words, which refer to organisms cultured or grown out in lab tests. They are also distinct from both H-TXPROC words in which the testing procedures are performed on the patient's body (Ex. 'XRAY', 'SCAN', 'GI SERIES') and from H-TXCLIN words ("hands-on' procedures found in the "Examination" section of the medical document). The H-TXVAR words either have a quantity expression associated with them, a normalcy (H-NORMAL) or a result descriptor (H-TXRES) or a word from the H-INDIC subclass.


TREATMENT AREA
H-DEVMED*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT V _____.
Ex. Pt has a pacemaker.
Ex. Pt uses a walker.

H-TTCOMP|H-TTGEN|H-TTSURG [with|using] _____.
Ex. Adjust the strap.
Ex. ... was dressed using Xeroform.

H-DEVMED includes names of devices or materials use in patient care. Examples include 'AEROCHAMBER', 'APPLIANCE', 'SUTURE', 'UTRATA FORCEPS'.


H-INST*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT V P _____.
Ex. Pt seen in ER.

H-PT V _____.
Ex. Pt will see a cardiologist.

H-INST includes names of hospitals, clinics and specialty departments within the medical institution as well as human caregivers: physicians, nurses, consultants, etc. Included also are names of organizations, e.g. 'ADA', the abbreviation for the American Diabetic Association.


H-TTCOMP*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-RESP P ______
Ex. Improved on bedrest

This subclass contains medical action words designating therapy (such as 'BEDREST', 'IMMUNIZATION', 'HYDRATION'), of a "complementary" nature; that is, they are distinguished from the words in the H-TTGEN subclass which designate administrative and general medical management actions (ex. 'ADMIT', 'DISCHARGE'), the H-TTSURG subclass which designates surgical interventions, and the H-TTMED subclass which designates medications. Some of the H-TTCOMP words are classifiers (ex. 'TREATMENT', 'THERAPY') of the H-TTCOMP words and as such have the attribute GENERIC.


H-TTGEN*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT was _____ P H-INST.
Ex. Patient was followed in medical clinic.

H-PT was _____ P H-INST.
Ex. Patient was admitted to zzz hospital.

______ of H-PT P H-INST.
Ex. Discharge of patient from zzz hospital.

H-PT ______ P H-INST.
Ex. Patient returned to hospital.

This subclass contains words (mainly verbs) of general medical management, such as administrative actions, patient education, and decisions regarding care. Examples include 'ACCEPT', 'ADMISSION', 'ALLOW', 'ASSESS', 'CERTIFY', 'CONFER', 'EXPLAIN', 'FOLLOW', 'INSTRUCT', 'MEET', 'MAP OUT', 'ORDER', 'OVERSEE', 'RE-ADDRESS', 'RULED IN'.


H-TTMED*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-INST H-TTGEN _____ [to H-PT].
Ex. Doctor prescribed ampicillin.

The H-TTMED subclass is a drug and medication subclass containing words for medications prescribed for patients.


H-TTSURG*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ P H-INDIC P H-PTPART.
Ex. Excision of cataract in left eye.

_____ P H-PTPART
Ex. Over the years, several surgical procedures on knees for calcium problems.

H-PTPART _____.
Ex. Left wrist synovectomy.

H-TTSURG contains general and specific surgical treatment or procedure words which imply or denote surgical intervention. Examplw include 'APPENDECTOMY', 'EXCISE', 'INCISION', 'OPERATE'.


TIME AREA
H-POST*TYPICAL FRAMES
____ H-DIET H-INDIC.
Ex. Postprandial discomfort.

____ H-TTSURG.
Ex. Post-appendectomy

H-POST is a support class (co-assigned with another H-class) to carry the time information implied by the prefix POST-, or the non-hypenated prefix POST, as in 'POSTPRANDIAL'.


H-TMBEG*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-INDIC/H-DIAG _____.
Ex. Fever developed.

H-TTCOMP/H-TTMED/H-TTGEN BE _____.
Ex. Treatment was begun.

_____ of the H-INDIC/H-DIAG.
Ex. The start of the discomfort.

_____ of the H-TTMED/H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN.
Ex. The beginning of the hospitalization.

This class consists of words which indicate that an event or state has begun. For example, 'BECOME' would have the class H-TMBEG since "The patient became sick" involves the entering of a new state.


H-TMDUR*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-INDIC/H-DIAG.
Ex. persistent cough.

_____ P H-INST
Ex. his stay on the ward.

H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN/H-TTMED BE _____.
Ex. Hospitalization was prolonged.

_____ OF H-INDIC/H-DIAG.
Ex. Episode of meningitis.

Also an adverb in ASSERTION may be in subclass H-TMDUR. Ex. Patient still has fever.

This class includes words which indicate that the event modified took place over a period of time, rather than at a point in time. A good test for determining whether something took place at a point in time or over a period is whether the event can accept the modifier "[LASTED] FOR A PERIOD OF TIME". For example, this sentence is acceptable: "The episode of vomiting lasted for a period of time". But this sentence is peculiar: "The date of discharge lasted for a period of time". This class also contains other qualitative temporal modifiers.


H-TMEND*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-INDIC/H-DIAG _____.
Ex. Fever disappeared.

H-TTMED/H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN/ BE _____ .
Ex. Medication was discontinued.

_____ of H-TTMED/H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN.
Ex. Termination of treatment.

This class includes words which signify the termination of a state or action [ex. 'tremors subsided', 'completion of surgery']. Many verbs in H-TMBEG (or other H-TMxxx or H-CHANGE classes) are used in the active and passive with the same time sense ('Fever ended', 'fever was ended', 'hospitalization terminated', 'hospitalization was terminated'). These are called in linguistics MIDDLE verbs.

H-TMEND can also be a "support class" to a word which has another medical significance. For example, 'resolve' is both H-RESP and H-TMEND (ex. "Patients chest pain resolved with Isordil"). All time classes (H-TMxxx) can be support classes. The full set of support classes is listed in SUPPORT-CLASSES-LIST in $LSPLIB/ESELTPL12.TXT, where for each support class, the H-classes it occurs with in that capacity are listed. A support class occurring with another H-class is not considered an ambiguity to be resolved.


H-TMLOC*TYPICAL FRAMES
P _____ NTIME2.
Ex. During the previous week.

P _____ H-TTGEN.
Ex. At a prior admission.

_____ Verb.
Ex. Previously mentioned.

These words mark a location in time of the associated event. A preposition in the class H-TMPREP is not also marked H-TMLOC. H-TMLOC can also be a support class


H-TMPREP*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ NTIME1.
Ex. After last week.

_____ H-TTGEN.
Ex. During admission...

These words are prepositions (and one noun 'DURATION') that are associated exclusively with time expressions, as opposed to prepositions like 'AT', 'ON' which have additional uses besides time expressions vs. ex. "at admission" vs. "at the hospital".


H-TMREP*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-INDIC/H-DIAG _____.
Ex. Headache recurred.

H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN/H-TTMED BE _____.
Ex. Treatment was repeated.

_____ H-INDIC/H-DIAG/H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN/H-TTMED.
Ex. Second admission.
Additional treatment.

_____ ASSERTION.
ASSERTION _____.
Ex. Patient ate regularly.
Ex. Patient was admitted again.

This class includes words which indicate that the event modified was performed more than once. It also includes all the adverbs associated with the numbers (ex. 'X6', 'TWICE', etc.). In addition, it includes verbs of repetition ('REPEAT', 'RESUME', 'REITERATE', etc.), and adjectives that imply repetition, (ex. 'CHRONIC', 'ADDITIONAL', 'ANOTHER'). It also includes time repetition adjectives and adverbs (ex. 'FREQUENTLY', 'OFTEN', 'MONTHLY', 'INTERMITTENTLY').


FINDINGS AREA
H-AMT*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-TXCLIN/H-PTMEAS/H-TXVAR/H-PTFUNC.
EX. Full range_of_motion.

_____ H-INDIC.
EX. Severe pain.

H-AMT words indicate amounts in non-numerical terms ('HIGH', 'LOW'). Some noun classifiers of amounts are included, e.g. 'level', 'value'.


H-CHANGE*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ P H-TTGEN.
Ex. alterations in management.

_____ P H-TTMED
Ex. Change of medication.

This class includes words indicating a change in an existing state but without a definite indication of the direction of change, in contrast with the classes H-CHANGE-LESS, H-CHANGE-MORE, H-CHANGE-SAME. It includes 'MODIFY', 'REVERSE', 'TAILORED', 'VARIATION'.


H-CHANGE-LESS*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-TTMED/H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN _____ MED-DOSE.
Ex: Ampicillin tapered from 500 mg to 300 mg qid.

H-INST H-TTGEN H-TTMED H-INDIC
Ex. We adjusted her medication to minimize her after load

This class includes words indicating a change in a downward direction or towards a lesser amount. It includes verbs, adverbs, nouns, adjectives, e.g. 'MINIMIZE', 'RECEDING', 'LESSENING', 'LOWER', 'FLATTEN', 'LIGHTEN', 'FEWER'.


H-CHANGE-MORE*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ P H-AMT/H-INDIC/H-DIAG/H-PTMEAS/H-PTFUNC.
Ex. increase in severity.

_____ H-AMT/H-INDIC/H-DIAG/H-PTMEAS/H-PTFUNC.
Ex. increased fatigue

H-DIAG/H-INDIC/H-PTMEAS _____.
Ex. asthma exacerbation
Ex. weight gain

This class includes words indicating a change in an upward direction or towards a greater amount. It includes verbs, adverbs, nouns, adjectives, e.g. 'HEIGHTENED', 'EXPAND', 'ESCALATION', 'EXACERBATION', 'INCREASINGLY', 'CLIMBING'.


H-CHANGE-SAME*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-DIAG/H-INDIC/H-PTMEAS/H-PTFUNC _____ H-NORMAL.
Ex. Cardiac silhouette remains within normal limits.

H-DIAG/H-INDIC/H-PTMEAS/H-PTFUNC _____ .
Ex. Neurologic diagnoses are static .

H-PT _____ P H-TTMED.
Ex. The patient was maintained on the following medications

This class includes words indicating a stable condition over time. It includes verbs, adverbs, nouns, adjectives, e.g. 'REMAINED', 'MAINTAINS', 'RETAIN', 'SAME', 'STATIC', 'UNCHANGED'.


H-DIAG*TYPICAL FRAMES
Patient has _____.
Ex. Patient has glaucoma.

Diagnosis: _____.
Ex. Diagnosis Arthritis.

Impression: _____.
Ex. Impression: Meningitis.

H-DIAG words are NAMES of diseases (usually found in the diagnosis and/or impression sections of the discharge summary). The ICDA Manual has been used as the basis for this classification. H-DIAG words are distinct from Sign/Symptom words (ex. 'STOMACH_ ACHE', 'FEVER', 'PAIN') which go into the H-INDIC subclass.


H-INDIC*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT H-PTVERB _______ P H-PTPART.
Ex. Patient complained of tenderness in joints.

NHUMAN H-OBSERVE _____ P H-PTPART.
Ex. Mother observed redness around eyes.

H-INDIC words indicate a sign or symptom of illness. There are several words in this class which need some further explanation. The class includes its classifier or generic words such as 'PROBLEM', 'SYMPTOM', 'ABNORMALITY', 'ILLNESS'. The H-INDIC on these classier words carries the attribute GENERIC.

Words negating a symptom observed in the Physical Exam, ex. 'AFEBRILE', are classed as H-NORMAL and carry an additional attribute MORPH that details the morphological composition of the word; this allows the symptom part of the word to be accessed. For example, AFEBRILE has the attributes:
MORPH: ('FEBRILE': (H-INDIC), 'A-': (H-NEG)), H-NORMAL.


H-NORMAL*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-TXVAR/H-PTMEAS/H-TXCLIN/H-PTFUNC (be) _____.
Ex. Temperature normal.
Range_of_motion normal.
Growth and development - within normal limits.

This class contains words indicating normalcy, either for a test result or for the patient. These H-NORMAL words have a "normal" meaning regardless of the context whereas some descriptors with no medical subclass, e.g. H-CHANGE words, may be positive or negative depending on the context.


H-ORG*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PTPART H-SHOW _____.
Ex. CSF shows HBV.

H-PTPART H-SHOW _______.
Ex. CSF shows H. Influenzae type B.

This subclass contains NAMES of organisms cultured out in the course of lab tests, but only those that have other properties in addition, since the majority of organisms are named on a list obtained from outside sources. That list deals only with nouns (singular and plural). Adjectival forms (e.g. 'leptospiral') are to be entered in the dictionary. Organism names that are also diagnoses (e.g. 'herpes', 'HBV') must also be dictionary entries with both H-ORG and H-DIAG attributes; otherwise the H-DIAG occurrence will not be recognized. Thw dictionary should also contain the NAMES of classifiers of organisms (ex 'PATHOGEN', 'ORGANISM'), which have, in addition to the subclass H-ORG, the attribute GENERIC.


H-RESP*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-TTCOMP P H-AMT _____.
Ex. Night splint with great relief.

H-NEG _____ P H-TTMED.
Ex. No response to penicillin.

H-TTCOMP P H-TTMED P _____.
Ex. Treated with prednisone with resolution.

H-RESP is a subclass of words indicating patient/disease response to a medication or treatment.


H-TXRES*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-TXVAR/H-TXCLIN.
Ex. Positive Kernig's.

H-PTPART/H-TXVAR/H-TXCLIN _____.
Ex. Cranial nerves intact.
Fluid was cloudy with 14,000 RBC.
Gram stain negative.

H-TXVAR ______ P Quantity.
Ex. Fe level of 24.

This subclass consists of words denoting the results of tests, as opposed to numerical results and H-AMT words. The usual subjects are physical exam tests (H-TXCLIN), blood chemistry tests (H-TXVAR), imaging and related diagnostic procedures (H-TXPROC) or lab cultures (H-ORG).


H-DESCR*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-DEVMED BE _____ H-TTSURG.
Ex. The suture is a water-tight closure.

________ ____ H-INDIC.
Ex. A punctate dark lesion.

H-DESCR words are primarily nouns and adjectives which provide descriptive information (e.g. shape, color) that is not specific as to its medical significance. Examples are: APPLICABLE, AQUATIC, AROMATIC, AZURE, BAND-LIKE, BARBED, COLUMNAR, DARK, VIVID, WARM, WATER-TIGHT.


H-DIET*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-RESP P _____.
Ex. Controlled by diet.

H-INDIC P __________.
Ex. Allergic to tomatoes.

H-PT [H-NEG] H-PTFUNC _____.
Ex. Patient does not eat meat.

________ ____ H-MODAL.
Ex. A low-fat diet recommended.

H-DIET words are primarily nouns and adjectives which name foods or dietary prescriptions, or food-related modifiers (e.g. 'postprandial').

Examples are: APPLE, CHESTNUTS, COCA COLA, DAIRY, DIETARY, DIABETIC DIET, LOW-CHOLESTEROL, DINNER, FAT, HERBAL TEAS, RESTAURANT, SALT, VEGETARIAN.

Notes: 'Postprandial' is both H-DIET and H-POST. 'Recommended' is H-MODAL because the subject (in the example 'low-fat diet') is not a statement of fact, i.e. the patient is not yet on a low-fat diet.


EVIDENTIAL AREA
H-MODAL*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-INDIC/H-DIAG.
Ex. Questionable fracture.
Rule out meningitis.

H-INDIC/H-DIAG/H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN BE ______ .
Ex. Discharge is probable.

_____ ASSERTION.
Ex. Apparently, patient was feeling well.

H-INST _____ H-TTCOMP/H-TTGEN/H-TTMED.
Ex. Doctor advised admission.

This class contains words which qualify the existence of the term modified, making it to some degree uncertain. For example, contrast "rule out meningitis" with "diagnosis of meningitis". This class is distinguished from the subclass H-NEG which negates the existence of the term modified. For example, contrast "absence of meningitis" with "rule out meningitis". (The past tense of 'rule out', hovever, is definite, and is classed H-NEG: 'Meningitis ruled out'.)


H-NEG*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT _____ [to] H-TTGEN/H-TTCOMP/H-TTMED.
Ex. Patient refused medication.

_____ ASSERTION.
Ex. Patient never had headaches.

This class of words negates the existence of the event modified. It is virtually a closed class.


CONNECTIVE AREA
H-BECONN*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-INDIC _____ H-DIAG.
Ex. Symptoms include diarrhea.

H-TTCOMP _____ H-TTMED.
Ex. Treatment consisted of ampicillin.

The H-BECONN words are BE-like CONNectives, linking two phrases of the same class or related classes. They are distinguished from other classes of connectives by the fact that they indicate a whole-to-part or part-to-whole relation.


H-CONN*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT H-TTGEN+H-TMEND H-TTMED /________/ H-INDIC
Ex. She stopped aspirin because of GI upset

H-INDIC _____ H-INDIC
Ex. Fever caused the headache.

H-CONN words relate two sentential arguments or phrases which are mapped into two separate information units. The two information units are linked by the H-CONN word, as the connective. H-CONN words, like other major healthcare syntactic classes can take a time support class, e.g. H-TMEND occurring with H-TTGEN in the entry for STOPPED, seen in the example of the frame.


H-SHOW*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PTPART _____ H-INDIC.
Ex. Lung revealed lesion.

H-PTSPEC _____ H-TXVAR + QUANTITY.
Ex. CSF showed WBC was 5,072.

H-TXSPEC _____ H-TXVAR.
Ex. Urinalysis showed no protein.

H-DIAG _____ Sentential String
Ex. Impression of meningitis confirmed by finding cloudy CSF.

This class consists of 'SHOW' and its synonyms. Generally, the subject is a test or procedure (sometimes a bodypart: 'The liver shows moderate fatty change'). The class includes some verbs that are "richer" than 'show', 'reveal' etc. in that they go beyond the statement of observables and include interpretation: 'confirm', 'corroborate', 'support', 'verify'.


H-VTEST*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-TXVAR _____ QUANTITY.
Ex. HCT ranged from 24 to 35.

These words are laboratory or measurement verbs whose subject or object is a lab test (H-TXVAR) or substance. Examples are ACIDIFY, AGGREGATE, ALKALANIZE, ANALYZE, CLASS, COLLECT, COUNT, CROSS-MATCH.


OTHER SEMANTIC CLASSES
Classes used in processing (but not in IFS output)
H-AGE At the moment, there are only a few words in this class. They include life-stage words ('adult', 'adolescent'), forms of 'year-old', and the word 'age'.

BEREP*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT _____H-INDIC/H-STATUS.
Ex. He appears sick.

H-PTPART _____ H-INDIC/H-STATUS.
Ex. The arm remained painful.

This class contains words which could be replaced by 'BE'. [BEREP = BE REPLACER] plus a further property or nuance. This is a word class of the English grammar.


H-FAMILY*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ V H-DIAG.
Ex. Brother also has sickle cell disease.

_____ H-OBSERVE H-PT V H-INDIC.
Ex. Mother noted patient had fever.

H-FAMILY are words denoting members of a family. They may be the subject word of a sign/symptom or diagnosis predicate. A family member can also be the source of information about a patient (or bring the patient into the hospital). H-FAMILY words can have the attribute FEM or MASC. Gender is marked whenever it is implicit in the word. Ex. 'MOTHER' has the attributes H-FAMILY and FEM.

H-FAMILY has been extended to cover friends who may be cited in regard to the patient's healthcare or social behavior. Ex. 'boyfriend', 'partner'.


H-GEOGR*TYPICAL FRAMES
H-PT V from/in _____
Ex. The patient recently returned from Mexico.
Ex. The patient currently lives in San Francisco.

This subclass contains words designating geographical locations. These words are supplied to the parser via a list GEOFILE.


H-ETHNIC*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ N: (masc)
_____ N: (fem)
Ex. White male.
Black female.

This subclass contains words designating racial or ethnic background.


H-RECORD*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____ H-SHOW ASSERTION.
Ex. Review of health records showed PPD of 1972 was also positive.

H-RECORD is a subclass of nouns designating terms that refer to patient records. Ex. 'CHART', 'DOCUMENT', 'REPORT', 'SUMMARY'.


H-TESTVIEW H-TESTVIEW is a small subclass of words indicating angles or positions from which Xrays should be taken or have been taken. (Ex. 'LATERAL', 'AXIAL', 'PA').

H-TRANSP*TYPICAL FRAMES
_____of N.
Ex. a tonic,clonic type of convulsion.
The list of medications...
The state of the disease...

H-TRANSP is a subclass of nouns that is of such generality that it obtains its significance from the H-class of its modifier.